New Papers(Nature, etc)

2018/01/08~14 New Papers(Nature, etc)

Nature Communication
1. Tectonically-triggered sediment and carbon export to the Hadal zone
Rui Bao, Michael Strasser, Ann P. McNichol, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Gerold Wefer & Timothy I. Eglinton

Nature Climate Change
Nature Geoscience

no relevants


New Papers(AGU,EGU,GSA) 2017/12/25~31

New Papers(AGU,EGU,GSA) 2017/12/25~31

JGR: Oceans
1. Physical and Biological Drivers of Biogeochemical Tracers Within the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone of the Southern Ocean From Profiling Floats
Ellen M. Briggs, Todd R. Martz, Lynne D. Talley, Matthew R. Mazloff, Kenneth S. Johnson

2. The Effect of Alongcoast Advection on Pacific Northwest Shelf and Slope Water Properties in Relation to Upwelling Variability
Hally B. Stone, Neil S. Banas, Parker MacCready

Geophysical Research Letters
3. Current and future decadal trends in the oceanic carbon uptake are dominated by internal variability
Hongmei Li, Tatiana Ilyina

Climate of the past
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
GSA Bulletin

no relevants


General report of the International seminar/国際セミナーレポート Days 11 (15/9/2017)

Day11 @Kashiwa: Presentation, each group, Farewell Party

[Each group prepared a presentation of their choices]

[A final presentation by each group]

All 5 groups did their presentation on their favourite topics. Here are topics and some important points that each group introduced.

Group A: Topic[Volcanos]
1: Pre-Fuji volcanoes; Mt. Fuji consists 4 volcanoes.
2: Volcanic history of Shin Fuji; The volcanic activity of Mt. Fuji can be divided into five different stages. Activity decreased from A.D.1000.
3: Crater locations and the tectonic settings of Mt. Fuji; The craters of Mt. Fuji follow the line of subduction.
4: Macroscopic Geomorphology; The Hoei Eruption dykes.
5: Culture; Goraiko, the sunrise seen from the peak of Mt. Fuji.
6: Evacuation plans; Evacuation plans are showed for the event of future Mt. Fuji eruption.
7: Microscopic Geomorphology; Lava Tree Molds and the womb Mold.

Group B: Topic [Tsunami in Japan]
1: Generation of the tsunami; Energy released by the earthquake inside the oceanic plate generates the Tsunami.
2: Evidences from the past; Can be seen from the past tsunamis deposits in Sanriku region. Also from the historical literature such as the Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku.
3: Tsunami features; Tsunami has some interesting features, such as its relationship between the velocity, depth, and the height. When the tsunami is travelling around deep ocean, velocity is very fast, but the height is short. When the Tsunami is travelling around shallow ocean, the velocity is slower, but the height is a lot taller.
4: Coastal Features and Mitigation Strategies; Since the topography of coastlines affects the force of tsunami, it is important to have mitigation plans that are suitable for each locality.
5: Technologies and Engineering; After the great Tsunami event, engineers tried hard to reconstruct the sights that are damaged by the Tsunami.

Group C: Topic [Volcano]
1: Geomorphology of Mt. Fuji; Structure of the mountain is unique since it contains different volcanos from the past.
2: Volcanic Histories; Indicating the Hoei eruption was the most recent eruption. Existence of 3 different craters at Hoei eruption site indicate that Hoei eruption was not a single eruption, but was 3 different eruptions.
3: Evacuation plans; Evacuation plans are made and updated regularly to enhance the awareness that Mt. Fuji will erupt in future.
4: Culture: Warship and Art; For example, a poem of Mt. Fuji from “Manyoshu”, which is the oldest collection poetry. Another example of painting of Mt. Fuji from “Thirty-six views of mount Fuji”.
5: Modelling; The use of geophysical flow model, ash distribution models, and tephra dispersal models help to construct the Hazard map for Mt. Fuji future eruption.

Group D: Topic [Tsunami]
1: What is Tsunami; There are several types of Tsunami categorised by how it is generated such as landslide generated, and earthquake generated.
2: The Tohoku region and 3.11; Explained by one of the members from Group D who was living in Tohoku region during the 3.11 earthquake. She told us what she experienced during the earthquake.
3: The outside perspective of 3.11; Explained by showing how the media reacted to the event.
4: What technology exists to mitigate the effects of a Tsunami; Japan Meteorological Agency has an equipment to monitor all the small earthquakes occurring at Japan, which can detect the micro earthquake before the big earthquake occur. This is used as a warning system in Japan.
5: What can be done to prepare for the future Tsunami; By analysing the Nankai trough activities, past Tsunami deposits, and constructing Inochi-yama mountain, and Tsunami evacuation tower, we are able to mitigate some impacts of the Tsunami in the future.

Group E: Topic [Mt. Fuji]
1: Cultural history; Religion at Mt. Fuji is based on Shinto which is one of the Japanese original religion.
2: Volcanic History; There were two main eruption, Jogan and Hoei eruption.
3: Geomorphology; Group E showed the lava flow history of Mt. Fuji and the magma contained at Mt. Fuji is explosive basaltic magma. Also, they showed that Ropy Pahoehoe Tree Molds are observable at Mt Fuji.
4: Evacuation plan; Since the eruption can be explosive, a hazard map is created for Mt. Fuji future eruption.
5: Miscellaneous; Building construction; Group E explained how to construct a building in a country with such intensive earthquakes. Understanding the geography, right use of material and design provide a well quake resisting building.

Even though some groups presented similar topics in their presentations, but they were still very inspiring for everyone.

[Farewell Party at Hama the Sushi restaurant in AORI]

After all the presentations were done, we had a farewell party at Hama the Sushi restaurant. After spending two weeks in Japan, students from ANU said that they have seen and learnt so much that they would never experience back in Australia. Even though it was very sad to say goodbyes, we knew that we will see each other again in near future. Of course, the trip was not only inspiring to the students from ANU, but also to the U Tokyo students as well. We all learnt about the geological hazards not only by the lectures but also by seeing and feeling through visiting many different sights. 

General report of the International seminar/国際セミナーレポート Days 7-10 (11-14/9/2017)

Day7-9 @Kanagawa and Fuji
Day7: Visit to Fujitsu Kawasaki laboratories, Mt. Fuji Research Institute

[富士通川崎研究所のロビーにてGroup photo]
[At Fujitsu Kawasaki Laboratories, where new technologies are being created]

We visited Fujitsu Kawasaki Laboratories on day 7. At this location, we saw many gadgets filled with new technologies. As the performances of the super computer increase, we are able to handle more complex data and analyse them more deeply. 

[At Mt. Fuji Research Institute, lectures on history and characteristics of Mt. Fuji.]

Before climbing up the Mt. Fuji, it is important to understand its formation and tectonic settings. At Mt. Fuji Research Institute, we attended several lectures on history and characteristics of Mt. Fuji.

[students and researchers discussing the pathways of lava flow]

The direction of lava flow is heavily dependent on the topography. We used a detailed map with the topography of Mt. Fuji and shampoo liquid to imitate the behaviour of the lava flow.

Day8: Mt. Fuji world heritage centre, Funatsu Tainai cave, Saiko Komoriana cave, Jiraginno Aokigahara Lava Flow

[At Mt. Fuji world heritage centre, we studied about the cultural aspect of Mt. Fuji]

We visited this newly built Mt. Fuji world heritage centre. Inside of this facility, there’s a 15m wide Mt. Fuji model which is entirely covered with the Japanese paper. Here we learnt about the religious and cultural aspects of Mt. Fuji.

[Some of the students got quite excited.]

[The Lava Tree Mold near Mt. Fuji world heritage centre]

Here, we entered a Lava Tree Mold which is a hole that was created by the tree which the lava flowed around.  

[At Funatsu Tainai Lava Tree Mold]

We had to crouch with our knees to our chest to go inside the Funatsu Tainai Lava Tree Mold which is roughly 70 m series of caves at the northern side of the Mt. Fuji.

[The Komoriana cave. Prof. Yokoyama giving us a lecture of the theories of the formation of this cave]

Day9: Climb up Mt. Hoei, Visit Fisheries Laboratory U Tokyo

[宝永火口付近にて、Group photo、そろそろかなり仲良くなってきた感]
[Near the Mt. Hoei, group photo]

Finally, we climbed up the Mt. Fuji on day 9. Mostly it was cloudy, but we saw some blue skies from time to time. 

[Volcanic bomb near the Mt. Hoei eruption site]

This huge volcanic bomb was shot from the eruption site of Mt. Hoei. The rock was half melt and half solid when it was ejected, but soon it got cooled and solidified while it was traveling. We were able to see the evidence of cooling processes of this volcanic bomb very well from this sample. 

[students climbing up the mountain]

Although it was relatively a short walk, this was already 2000m above the ground with thin air and we had to walk on a sandy week road which consumed quite a lot of energy to climb. 

[Fisheries Laboratory of U Tokyo]

At the Fisheries Laboratory of U Tokyo, we had a lecture on the research projects of doctors at this location. We also saw some fish tanks filled with puffer fish. 

[sunset from Hamana lake]

Although we were all exhausted from the mountain climbing, seeing the beautiful sunset from Hamana lake was a perfect ending of this day.

Day10 @Enshu region Visit Arai Checkpoint (Arai-no-Sekisho), Otagawa lowland, Minato inochi-yama, Nakashinden inochi-yama

[新居の関所にて、Group photo]
[Group photo at Arai-no-Sekisho]

At Arai-no-Sekisho, we saw a security check point that was used to check the traveller’s identity during the Edo period. This checkpoint was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami several times, and had to be reconstructed again and again.

[At Otagawa plane, students walking near the river bank]

At Otagawa plane, we walked down the river bank to get to see the outcrop where we can see the tsunami deposits from the past.

[Tsunami Deposit of Otagawa river bank]

At this location, we saw some tsunami deposits indicating the past tsunami events. The red/orange layers reflect the number of tsunami struck in one earthquake event.

General report of the International seminar/国際セミナーレポート Days 1-6 (5-10/9/2017)

From 5th ~ 15th of September 2017, we had Tokyo University and Australian National University International Excursion on Earth and Planetary Environment. 15 students from Australian National University came over to Japan to study and understand the geological hazards.  

Day1-2 @Kashiwa
Day1: Greetings, AORI walking tour, and Welcome Party
[顔合わせ、ここからはANUU Tokyoの学生の混合グループで行動しました。]
[Introducing each other. From this day forward, students from ANU and U Tokyo were divided into 5 mixed groups]
[AORI tourの風景、学生達にAMSの説明をする横山先生][AORI walking tour with Prof. Yokoyama, explaining the AMS facility to students.]
Other than the AMS facility, we also looked at the breeding facility of marine biology.

[Welcome Party]

On day 1, we met 15 students and a professor from ANU. When we first met, we were all nervous to see new people with having some language barriers. However, after spending few hours of ice breaking sessions, we slowly started to know each other more and more.    
Day2: Lecture day (from Prof. Yoshio Takahashi, Prof. Phil Cummins, Prof. Satake, Stephen Obrochta, Ryoji Sato)
[Students learning many types of Geohazards through lectures]

[“What’s Consciousness?” 科学哲学の講義を英語でディスカッションする学生たち]
[What is Consciousness? Is Earth conscious? Some deep discussions on scientific philosophy.]

On day 2, we had some lectures from Prof. Yoshio Takahashi, Prof. Phil Cummins, Prof. Satake, Doc. Stephen Obrochta, and Project Assistant Professor. Ryoji Sato. All lectures helped us to understand the concepts of geohazards, and they were all necessary to be well understood before going to the field trip and see the actual sights.  

Day3-5 @Tohoku region
Day3: Visit to Tohoku University Onagawa field centre

[At Onagawa town, monument with writings of what should and shouldn’t do at the event of Tsunami (image on the left). Fences that were bent by the force of Tsunami (image on the right)]

Onagawa field centre which research about the marine biology in Tohoku region is a property of Tohoku University. However, the facility was destroyed by the Tsunami event in 2011. We visited the new Onagawa field centre that was reconstructed at the same location.

[At Onagawa Hospital on a hill. The red line on the pillar indicates the height of the Tsunami wave at this location]

Tsunami easily reached above our head. Surprisingly, this hospital is on a relatively high hill, which suggests that the Tsunami was unimaginably high. 

[夜、宿にて、1日を振り返るReflection Diaryを話し合って書いている学生たち]
[Discussion night]

Each day on the field trip, we wrote a group diary to reflect on what we saw and learnt that day. We were quite depressed after seeing many sights that were destroyed by the Tsunami and the earthquake, but we also knew that to visit, to see with our own eyes, and to listen to what people actually experienced are highly important. Seeing is believing.

Day4: Visit Karakuwa visitor centre (Tsunami-ishi guided tour), Iwanuma library (Geo slicer)

[At Karakuwa town, visit to Tsunami rock of Kami-no-Kura]

We have visited the Karakuwa town’s Tsunami rock of Kami-no-Kura. This rock was carried from somewhere in this bay by the strong force of Tsunami on 3.11.

[At Iwanuma public library, Prof. Yokoyama explaining the Geoslicer.]

When we visited the Iwanuma public library, we saw a display of Geoslicer which indicates many geological events such as the tsunami deposits and volcanic tephra including the latest Tsunami event (3.11) at the top.

[At the folk museum nearby, U Tokyo student explaining what’s on the display to students from ANU]

Day5: Visit to Yuriage Natori city, Arahama elementary school, Nakahama elementary school
[Hiyori Mountain at Natori city. This hill was completely submerged under the water when the Tsunami struck the city]

People who tried to evacuate from the Tsunami by climbing up the Hiyori mountain lost their lives since it was not high enough to save them from the violence by the water.

[At Arahama elementary school. Fences at first floor is destroyed by the water]

At Arahama elementary school, the ground floor and 40 cm above of the first floor was submerged under the water carried by the Tsunami. Classrooms on such floors were full of debris like cars and trees. After 3 hours since the evacuation, an emergency helicopter started to rescue the students one by one from the rooftop. It took over 24 hours to take everyone off from the rooftop, and it began to snow while they were waiting to be rescued. It was lucky that they did not evacuate to the gymnastic building which was located right next to this elementary school. As it was completely destroyed by the Tsunami.

[At Nakahama elementary school, listening to what the school principle experienced when the Tsunami struck]  

[The Tsunami reached to the sealing of first floor]

When the Tsunami warning was released, principle of the Nakahama elementary school decided not to follow the evacuation plan they previously had, which was to evacuate to one of the other schools across the town. He thought that rather than taking 100 students on blocky roads that were destroyed by the earthquake, it is safer to let them stay at school and evacuate up in the attic. This brave decision making saved all the student’s lives.  

Day6 @Kanagawa
Day6 : Free day, visit Kamakura

[自由行動日、鎌倉を訪れるANUU Tokyoの生徒たち]
[Free day, some students visited Kamakura]

Some of the students visited one of the Japanese old capital city Kamakura.